Authentication tools and security

Login & confirm different operations in the way that’s best for you!

Choose the authentication tool that suits your needs & lifestyle best. Access your Swedbank digital environment with your chosen authentication tools:

  • Smart-ID
  • Biometric data – your fingerprint or face recognition
  • PIN code generator
  • Personal ID card/USB
  • Mobile signature

How to start using Smart-ID:

  • You will need your smartphone and your current authentication tool to log in to the Internet Bank.
  • Download a free Smart-ID app to your phone.
  • Create a Smart-ID account on your phone.
  • Activate it using your current authentication tool.

Download Smart-ID now:

Smart-ID for iOS    Smart-ID for Android

If you cannot download and activate Smart-ID on your own, come to the bank’s branch that is convenient to you. You must register before your visit.


The created Smart-ID account is valid for 3 years. Upon approaching date of expiry, you will receive a Smart-ID app notification. You may renew your Smart-ID account independently:

  • First, check if you have the latest Smart-ID app version (v.18 or newer).
  • Then check whether your phone has biometric data enabled (in phone settings).
  • Take your passport or personal ID card.

Then click “Renew account” in Smart-ID settings and follow the step-by-step process in the app.

Before starting, you may want to watch a demo video.


How to obtain a PIN code generator:

  • Log in to the Internet Bank and register for a consultation – choose the time and the preferred Swedbank branch.
  • Bring a valid identity document – passport or personal ID card – when going to the bank.

If you have Mobile-ID or Smart-ID, you don’t need a PIN code generator. You may use your current authentication tool to log in and confirm operations.

What is Smart-ID?

“Smart-ID” is a free application, which will make it easier and faster for you to login to Swedbank Internet Bank and Bank application, to confirm money transfers and other operations, and to sign various contracts.

In order to use “Smart-ID”, you will not necessarily have to be subscribed to a mobile communication operator. “Smart-ID” will operate wherever Wi-Fi or/and mobile internet is.

In order to use “Smart-ID”, you will need:

  • A smart phone with “Android 4.1” (or later version) or „iOS 8.0” (or later version);
  • Mobile internet or wireless internet connection.
Smart-ID instructions

“Smart-ID Basic”

  • If you create a “Smart-ID” account by using a code card or a code generator, “Smart-ID Basic” account will be created for you.
  • You can use electronic services of the banks: login, confirmation of various operations, confirmation of various service contracts.


  • If you create a “Smart-ID” account in a bank branch with the help of a consultant or by using the M-signature, “Smart-ID” account will be created for you.
  • You can use not only electronic services of the banks: login, confirmation of various operations, confirmation of various service contracts, and also signing of various documents. This ID tool has the same legal power, as the signature made with your hand.

The Estonian company “SK ID Solution AS” – a long-term Swedbank cooperation partner in the Baltic States and the developer of “Smart-ID” has been rendering certification services and issuing safe electronic signatures for 15 years.

More about “SK ID Solution AS”:

“Smart-ID” support:

How to use Smart-ID:

How to start use and how to renew Smart-ID?

How to login to the Internet Bank with “Smart-ID”?

How to perform payments in the Internet Bank with “Smart-ID”?

How to login to Swedbank app with “Smart-ID”?

How to perform payments in Swedbank app with “Smart-ID”?

What to do if you have forgotten your PIN code?


Smart-ID and smart devices

You can download Smart-ID app and create your electronic signature in any smart device (telephone, tablet, etc.) with Android (version 4.1 or later) or iOS (version 8.0 or later) operating system.

Yes, you can create your Smart-ID account in several different smart devices. Account registration (sign up) in different devices will have to be carried out anew. If you delete Smart-ID account in one device, it will not stop functioning in other devices.

You can create different PIN codes or use the same for the accounts in different devices.

You will see the request to check the control code and enter the required PIN code in all devices in which you have Smart-ID account. When you enter your PIN code in one device, the request to enter PIN code in other devices will automatically close.

This is subject to the characteristics of a smart device. Devices with Android OS usually allow the use of different user accounts. Meanwhile, devices with iOS do not have this function.

Not necessarily. E. g. you can have Smart-ID in your phone and connect to internet bank using any other device. You just need to enter PIN code in the device with Smart-ID account.

Account registration and validity

To start using electronic services provided by Swedbank, a person has to be resident of the Republic of Lithuania. Foreign citizens also have to have any type of residence permit specifying personal identification code allocated in the Republic of Lithuania.

Your Smart-ID account is valid for 3 years. When approaching the expiration date, you will have to delete the account and sign up again. Service provider SK ID Solutions will notify you in advance by sending an SMS or by e-mail.

To use the available Smart-ID also in Swedbank, you should first login to Swedbank internet bank with the identification tool you have (PIN code generator or M-signature) and enable the use of Smart-ID.

On the menu select as follows: My bank -> Settings -> Settings. Hit the button Enable Smart-ID.

Delete your account in Smart-ID: open Smart-ID app and hit “Delete account” on the top left corner.

First, download the “Smart-ID” app to your new smartphone. Then activate your “Smart-ID” account on the new smartphone by using “Smart-ID” of the old device. Delete the app from the old device only after having activated it on your new smartphone.

Yes, using Smart-ID has no effect on other forms of identification allowed by Swedbank. You can use the identification tool provided by the bank as an additional one. It may also be useful to have it when creating a new Smart-ID account (e. g. when forgetting your Smart-ID PIN code or losing a device, used for Smart-ID registration).

Using Smart-ID

Swedbank clients can use Smart-ID:

  • to connect to internet bank and bank app;
  • confirm payments and agreements;
  • identify themselves when connecting to the website of the third parties if these websites provide the possibility to connect via Swedbank internet bank.

When using Smart-ID transactions daily and monthly limits in the Agreement of Electronic Services shall be applicable. You can change the limits via internet bank or in any Swedbank branch.

The registration and use of Smart-ID, when connecting to Swedbank e-banking, is free of charge.

You can use Smart-ID anywhere you go where wireless internet is available. One Smart-ID request uses only as many as 5 KB of internet data.

No, SIM card is not needed. To use Smart-ID you only need wireless or mobile internet.

PIN codes

You can try entering PIN codes three times in succession. When you enter the wrong PIN code the third time, Smart-ID account is blocked for 3 hours. After 3 hours you can try again.

If you enter the wrong PIN code three times in succession for the second time, Smart-ID account will be blocked for 24 hours.

If you enter the wrong PIN code three times in succession one day later, Smart-ID account will be finally blocked.

Delete Smart-ID account and create a new one with new PIN codes.

You can delete your Smart-ID account in Smart-ID app by selecting the appropriate item and hitting on the top left corner menu.

If you fail to create an account in Smart-ID, please address the provider of Smart-ID service, , SK ID Solutions. Contact information:

Should you have any question or face interference while connecting to Swedbank e-banking through Smart-ID, contact us.

The advantages of Smart-ID in comparison to other forms of identification

Smart-ID is an alternative to a PIN code generator – it is only much more comfortable and free of charge.

Smart-ID is in your smart phone, and you always have your phone with you. Thus to connect to the Internet Bank you no longer have to look for your PIN code generator.

Besides, you sign up to Smart-ID and can use it for Swedbank e-banking at no cost.

Smart-ID is an alternative to mobile-ID, but itt does not require you to have a SIM card, it operates via Wi-Fi or mobile internet.

You do not have to go to any specific place to start using Smart-ID. You simply need to download Smart-ID app to your smart device and sign up with the available identification tool. You sign up to Smart-ID and can use it for Swedbank e-banking at no cost.


In such case, call the service provider SK ID Solutions, you will find the number on the website and ask them to block your Smart-ID account. You can also notify the bank of the loss. Upon your request from a client the service of internet bank will be blocked. The access will be unblocked on the basis of your request or request of the person’s authorised by you only at Swedbank branch.

We recommend installing Smart-ID in personal devices. In this way you will be sure that the users of the device will not accidentally block your account.

Detailed information on safety which guarantees technological principle of Smart-ID functioning can be found on (see Help -> Security and Private keys).

Please also follow general safety principles:

  • do not disclose your PIN codes to anyone;
  • make sure that your smart devices are secured with passwords;
  • do not forget to regularly update the OS in your device.

Start to use biometrics for logging into your Swedbank app and you will have a chance to win one of 10 iPhone 11 devices!

How to participate?

It’s easy – use your biometric data at least once to log into Swedbank app & you’re in!

The promotion is valid from 29.06 until 02.08.

Promotion rules

You can access Swedbank app & confirm transfers extra conveniently by using your biometric data – you won’t have to memorize any codes! Biometric data is the most unique data to identify you and authenticate your actions in digital banking environment.

Remember! In order to use your biometric data in Swedbank app, you need to enable biometric usage in your smart device settings. Your device must have a fingerprint or face recognition sensor.

View tutorial videos on how to start using biometric data in Swedbank app:

How to enable biometric usage in smart device:

By using your fingerprint or face recognition sensors in your smart device you can:

  • Log into your Swedbank app
  • View your account balance instantly and conveniently
  • Confirm payments (up to 100 euros 10 times in a row)
  • Manage your cards (block & unblock them, change their limits)
  • Repay used credit card limit
  • By using app menu section “Services” you can access internet bank without additional login.

What is PIN code generator?

PIN code generator is an electronic device, which generates single-use codes to be used for login and confirmation of various operations in the Internet Bank and Swedbank app.

PIN code generator is issued at the price of EUR 8.69.

Users of Swedbank Youth Programme and Senior Programme as well as users of the Basic Payment Account Service can get PIN code generators free of charge.

What is the personal identification card?

Electronic personal identification card (or e-ID card) is a secure and reliable method of identification.

This login tool can be used only in computers – mobile devices are not equipped for this purpose. Your computer must be additionally prepared for the use of the personal identification card/USB.

In order to use this identification measures, you will have to obtain a card terminal. Fees are available here.

How to obtain:

How to prepare your computer:

What is mobile signature?

You can also login to Swedbank Internet Bank and app and confirm operations with a mobile signature. In order to use it, you‘ll need a mobile phone with a special SIM card. Your mobile signature will be secured by two sPIN codes known solely to you. You‘ll have to enter these codes into your mobile phone – it is more secure than entering them into an internet page.

You can get mobile signature and receive more information on its price and conditions from your mobile network operator:

How to log-in with mobile signature?

Select “MobileSignature” when loggin in the internet bank or app.

  1. Enter your permanent user ID code in the box “User ID”.
  2. Enter your mobile phone number in the box “Phone number”, for example, 6XXXXXXX.

Enter your sPIN code

  1. Make sure that the code displayed in your Internet Bank or App log in screen coincides with the code displayed on the mobile phone, and confirm it.
  2. Enter the sPIN code of your mobile signature in the mobile phone.

What to do in case of losing login details?

If you lost your internet bank login codes or suspect that your login details could have been accessed by unauthorised persons, immediately call us at any time of the day or night. The Bank will block your access to your internet bank account immediately preventing access to money held on your account. You can call us to have your internet bank account blocked 24/7:

  • For private clients: call 1884 (or +370 5 268 4444)
  • For business clients: call 1633 (or +370 5 268 4422)

The bank will also automatically block the access to the Internet Bank incorrect login data (User ID or code from the PIN code generator) is entered for 5 times. You can unblock it by calling us at 1884 / 1633 (from 8:00 to 20:00 on working days, and from 9:00 to 16:00 on Saturdays). In case of a repeated block, you will have to arrive to a customer case branch. We recommend to book a visit in advance. You have become aware of unauthorised operations on your account performed prior to the blocking of your Internet Bank? Study the account statement and submit the information to us.

Secure your electronic channels login data

  • Under no circumstances confirm operations or logins to electronic channels, which are not initiated by you.
  • Under no circumstances disclose your personal data or data used for login to electronic channels to other persons, including family members, friends or bank employees, unless you are initiating the call with the Bank or the login to the Internet Bank or the smart application.
  • Do not write down, send by e-mail, SMS, etc. or otherwise save any confidential codes and passwords to unlock the screen of your computer or mobile phone. Create passwords, which are difficult to guess, memorise them and change them regularly. Recommendations on how to create reliable passwords are available here.
  • Remember that the User ID number is as important as your personal number, thus pay a great deal of attention to its security.
  • Sometimes one code of the identification tools can be requested not only for Internet Bank login but also for confirmation of other services within the Internet Bank, therefore, it is important to make sure that no other persons obtain this code from you.

Take a moment to familiarise with our security recommendations:

  • If you want your family members to be able to manage, control and dispose funds on your account(s), or that the employees of your company are able to manage funds in your company’s account(s), request the bank to grant the right to them to log in to your internet bank. They will be able to log in to your internet bank in their own name and by using their own credentials instead of using your credentials. And you will be free to revoke this right at any time.
  • The employees of the company should have personal authentication tools issued in their name to log in to the Internet Bank. Sharing one authentication tool is strictly forbidden.
  • Remember, that all Internet Bank login data (User ID, PIN codes, mobile phone number provided to the Bank, personal number, etc.) is the key protecting access to your money.
  • Do not write down your User ID number and do not keep it in the same place with other identification tools and confidential codes.
  • Never send your internet bank login data by email, never enter it to any form or link, if you yourself do not initiate a payment operation or call the bank. Information on how to recognise our Internet Bank website is available here.
  • Never disclose your login information, unless you are initiating the call with the bank. No one has the right to request to provide your personal number and identification tool by phone. If you receive a call from a person stating his is an employee of the bank, end the conversation immediately.
  • Your Smart-ID or PIN code generator codes should not coincide with any part of your phone number or the sequence of numbers. Avoid PIN codes, which are similar to dates or User ID.

Suspicious SMS messages. Stay alert!

Fraudulent SMS messages sent to you on our behalf may be used by fraudsters trying to obtain personal and identification tool data. These messages usually offer to click on an indicated link or to call the indicated phone number in order to allegedly update, revise, check or activate your account or Internet Bank.

Never answer to a SMS message requesting you to submit confidential data. Never click on the links and do not open files attached to suspicious mails, because this way you can activate a virus or you will be directed to a fraudulent website.

If, after clicking on the link, you have been directed to a site resembling our site, do not enter any requested data prior to contacting us. Here you can find the information on how you can recognise the authentic website.

If you suspect that other persons have gained access to your login data, contact us immediately.

Suspicious emails or calls. Be cautious!

If you receive a suspicious call or email from an alleged “bank employee” or “officer” requesting you to disclose secret login details – under no circumstances disclose such information. Do not trust this person only because he or she knows something about you. Fraudsters can have different scenarios to steal money (they request to update data; inform about suspicious bank operations, etc.), yet they have one common feature – they request to disclose confidential Internet Bank login data or to enter the generated code for identification and transaction confirmation.

Neither bank employees nor representatives of law enforcement or other institutions ever address residents requesting them to disclose their Internet Bank details (User ID, PIN codes, etc.). Also, they never initiate or confirm operations, which you have not initiated. Therefore, stay alert and do not open suspicious emails with potentially data stealing viruses attached. Make sure that you log in to the Internet Bank via the right website (

Please note:

  • Never disclose your secret login information, unless you are initiating the call with the bank.
  • Immediately inform the bank about any suspicious emails, SMS messages or calls.
  • Do not click on the links and do not open files attached to suspicious emails.
  • Remember – the bank never sends emails requesting for the User ID, personal number or PIN codes, or links to the websites where your details need to be entered.
  • The bank never sends emails requesting you to install additional software to improve Internet Bank possibilities.

If you find yourself in a similar situation, inform us about the incident by email or by calling 1884 (calling from abroad +370 5 268 4444) - for private clients or 1633 (calling from abroad +370 5 268 4422) - for business clients.

Closing browsing session

If when logged in to Internet Bank, no activity takes places for 5 minutes, the login session is terminated. You will be asked to re-enter your login details. Time limits are used for security reasons, if a user forgets to log off from his/her account after finishing using the Internet Bank.

Once you finish internet bank session, log off (by clicking 'Logoff') and close the browser.

Address of the Internet Bank website

On the computer:

On the smart device:

Before entering your login data, make sure that the bold website address part is only “” (or

We recommend the following safety measures on computers used for Internet Banking:

  • Install Antivirus software and configure it to automatic update of the virus definitions database (at least one auto-update per day).
  • Install the local firewall. It should be configured so that it prevents connections from the Internet to your computer.
  • Use the latest browser and operating system available.
  • Turn on automatic updates for all software. If it cannot be updated automatically, regularly check on its latest software.

We recommend the following safety measures on mobile devices (smartphones and tablets) used for Internet Banking:

  • Download applications only from trusted sources such as the App Store, Google Play or Windows Phone Apps – Microsoft store.
  • Do not jailbreak your mobile device to get around limitations set by your mobile network operator or device manufacturer. It will remove protections built into the device to defend against mobile threats.
  • Use the latest browser and operating system available.
  • Always screen lock your smart phone or any of your computers. If several levels of screen lock security are offered, always use the highest security level.
  • Do not allow other persons to use your phone or tablet were Swedbank App is installed.
  • Do not reveal the screen lock codes to other persons and do not allow to unlock your phone with other persons’ biometric data.
  • Use antivirus software in your telephone.
  • When using our smart application or your biometric data as an identification tool, always adhere to the requirements or security alerts of the manufacturer of your phone device.

Browse safely

  • Be careful with suspicious files. Do not open attachments or links received from unknown senders, unless you are confident that doing this is safe. Besides, be careful when opening files received from your known senders – their computers can also be infected with virus or spyware. Microsoft Office documents can also contain viruses, therefore it is always advisable to be careful before opening them and choose “No” option, when asked by Word program if you want to enable macros.
  • Once you finish internet bank session, log off (by clicking 'Logoff') and close the browser.
  • We encourage you to update your browser and Operating system version as soon as update is released. These updates can be set up automatically for better security and experience in our digital channels. We officially support these browser versions:

    • Google Chrome 80 and later
    • Microsoft Edge 80 and later
    • Mozilla Firefox 75 and later
    • Safari 13.1 and later

Check computer safety

More information on the ways to secure your device and to safely use other Internet services is available on the following websites:

Agreement of Electronic Services

When signing the agreement, you can:

  • choose the accounts you want to see on your internet bank. If you choose 'All accounts' option, without any additional amendment to the agreement, you will see also the accounts that will be opened in the future;
  • set profiles and transaction limits for your accounts (e.g. see account information, but restrict the possibility to make payments, set daily and monthly limits for transactions smaller than allowed by the bank, etc.);
  • entitle the other users to log in to your internet bank in their own name and by using their identification tools and set appropriate profiles and transaction limits for your accounts.

Business clients can assign different user's rights to their employees specifying the accounts allowed to be managed on internet bank and set appropriate profile for each account, individually. Further information about profiles applied to business clients is available here. Double acceptance – additional option for payments exceeding the client's set limit. Such payments require additional confirmation by the other user with the appropriate rights.

Business clients having the user rights administration right and using qualified electronic signature, can administer user rights in corporate internet bank as well. Information about the functionality and its possibilities is available here.

Transaction limits

Transaction limits for the client and account are set according to you and your business needs.

Client’s daily and monthly limits specify the total amount of funds to be transferred by all users from all the accounts of the client via all E-Channels over the respective period.

Daily and monthly transaction limits for an account could be set for every additional user individually and specifies the amount that a specific user can transfer from the specified account via the established Electronic channel during the respective period.

Transaction limits can be changed in internet bank (the maximum limit you can choose is EUR 10 000) or in a branch of Swedbank (make sure you have an ID card with you and have the right to represent the client, in case of company's representative, before arriving to the branch).

In corporate internet bank, transaction limits per account can be changed by the users with the appropriate user rights administration right.

'Notification Centre' service

By ordering the 'Notification Centre' service, you will receive information messages about the completed transactions and changes on your bank accounts. It is an excellent tool to control money flows. Business clients can also order this service for their employees.

Information about the charges for the 'Notification Centre' service is available here.

If you have subscribed to messages about transactions, you will be sent a message for transactions that occur on any of your accounts. These messages are purely informative; they are not meant to confirm (do not have probative force of) a transaction (including but not limited to a payment order) made on your account. Only information provided in an account statement about transactions made on the account has probative force.

Monitor your account balance

Monitor money movement on your personal and company's accounts on a regular basis. If you notice anything suspicious, immediately contact the bank by calling 1884 (for private clients) or 1633 (for business clients).

Have a safe e-shopping experience

When shopping in electronic shops, be prudent with your personal and financial data. Properly assess the threats, which you may encounter on the Internet. We recommend to ensure protection of personal devices and always follow these safety tips:

  • Shop in reliable shops only. It is always safest to buy goods and services in well-known Lithuanian and foreign e-shops with a good repute. Take a critical approach to unknown sellers and try to find out more information about their activity. Study public Internet feedback about a specific on-line shop. Find out whether the website presents detailed contact data of its administrator (address, email, etc.), and make sure it does not contain various errors in their links (additional words or letters, strange symbols), popup windows, advertisings, a great number of links instead of informative content.
  • Be cautious about discounts. You have found a high-quality product offered at a particularly low price? Before making a payment order, become certain that the company which offers the product really exists and is trustworthy. Be careful about advertisings in social networks. They may lead you to a fake online shop.
  • Safe shopping by card. When shopping in foreign e-shops, the most common mode of payment is by card. In this case you will have to indicate the details of your payment card. If an online shop participates in international security programmes, special logos such as “MasterCard SecureCode”, and “Verified by Visa” for Visa cards are used in this shop.
  • Safe payment via electronic banking system. When shopping in Lithuanian online shops, usually you will be redirected to Swedbank internet bank account. You will recognise it from the Swedbank logo and Internet Bank address: It shows that payment is made directly through the bank system. After you enter your login details, the website will automatically display the generated payment form.
  • Paying agents. If online shop redirects you to paying agent's webpage, be careful and pay attention where you enter your Internet Bank login details. As of 14/09/2019, after you select a service or good for which you wish to pay in an online shop, which uses the services of a paying agent, the latter has to address us as the account manager via the open application programming interface and request us to submit the information necessary for the payment initiation. In this case we ask for your consent to transfer the data necessary for performance of the payment operation to a concrete paying agent, which you must confirm with the Swedbank Internet Bank identification tools issued to you by the bank. You can confirm your consent in Swedbank Internet Bank or in the environment of the paying agent. If you have any suspicion that you encountered electronic fraudsters, inform us by calling 1884 (for private clients) or 1633 (for business clients).

You have doubts regarding the security? Notify us!

It is important for us at Swedbank that our customers can feel safe and secure when managing their monetary affairs with our electronic channels. Therefore, we seek to ensure the highest security level in IT systems. Despite this, an error may slip by. If you have found a security flaw, we would like to hear more about it to be able to correct the problem as soon as possible.

How do you report?

Send an email to us at We prefer that you use our public PGP key to protect the information you send over. Make sure to have included the following information:

  • Detailed description of the vulnerability containing such info as URL and type of vulnerability;
  • The necessary information that we need in order to reproduce the problem;
  • If applicable, a screenshot of the vulnerability you have found;
  • Contact information, name, email, phone number, and your public PGP key (if you have one).

This personal data submitted by you will be processed by Swedbank in order to inform you about the analysis of IT security flaws noticed by you and their correction, and, if necessary, to contact you regarding the revision of the information submitted by you. More information about Swedbank’s data processing procedure is available in the Personal Data Processing Principles at

What can you report?

You can report security flaws that you have found in any of our services. Examples of security flaws are cross-site scripting, flaws in encryption or flaws with security implications in logic controls. The reporting service is not for other logical errors, errors in texts, questions about our services, questions about the security of our services or similar.

What can you expect from Swedbank?

We will confirm that we have received your description, continuously keep you updated while we process the issue, and inform you when the issue is fixed. Claims for compensation as a condition for sending in a vulnerability are not accepted.

What is required from you?

It is important for both us and our clients' security that you follow good practice, i.e. that:

  • You do not use the vulnerability to access or attempt to access information that does not belong to you;
  • You do not use the vulnerability to remove or modify information;
  • You do not affect the availability of our services;
  • You give us an opportunity to fix the reported vulnerability before going public with it.

Can you file a report anonymously?

Yes, but then we cannot respond back and keep you updated on the status.

PGP key

PGP key

Key ID: 0x0AD6CCAF

Control code: 2D14 4030 6D4B 68C3 F286 3AC6 333B E8E4 0AD6 CCAF

You have doubts regarding the security? Notify us!

Contact us 24/7 via 1633 (+370 5 268 4422 – for calls from abroad), if:

  • you have noticed suspicious operations on your account;
  • you suspect that third persons have received access to your Internet Bank;
  • you have faced fraudulent actions aimed at obtaining login data from you or misappropriate your funds;

Warning about emerging cases of fraud we announce at security section and the Internet Bank login window. If you have noticed suspicious operations on your account, we can contact you personally. But you have to remember that bank employees contacting you by phone never ask to provide login data, passwords, PIN codes or other secret information. Bank employees may ask for certain login data only in cases, when you personally contact them via the phone numbers shown above and only for personal identification purposes.